Made to establish the horizontal and vertical positions of arbitrary points.
Made to determine the length and direction of land lines and to establish the position of these lines on the ground.
Made to gather data to produce a topographic map showing the configuration of the terrain and the location of natural and man-made objects.
The survey of bodies of water made for the purpose of navigation, water supply, or sub-aqueous construction.
Made to control, locate and map underground and surface works related to mining operations.
Made to lay out, locate and monitor public and private engineering works.
Refers to those control, topographic, and construction surveys necessary for the location and construction of highways, railroads, canals, transmission lines, and pipelines.
Made to utilize the principles of aerial photogrammetry, in which measurements made on photographs are used to determine the positions of photographed objects.
Generally involve imaging or “mapping” of regions of the sky using telescopes.