Artificially built part of a structure which transmits the load of the structure to the ground is called foundation.
Purpose of Foundation
- To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area so as to bring intensity of loading within the safe bearing capacity of the soil lying underneath.
- To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate so as to prevent unequal settlement.
- To prevent the lateral movement of the supporting material.
- To secure a level and firm bed for building operations.
- To increase the stability of the structure as a whole.
Types of Foundation
- Shallow Foundation.
- Deep Foundation.
A Shallow foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is situated instantly below the lowest part of a structure. The depth of foundation is equal or less than its width.
Classification of shallow foundation
- Spread Footings.
- Combined Footings.
- Mat or Raft Foundation.
A deep foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is placed at a deeper depth below the ground level. The depth of foundation is much greater than its width.
Classification of deep foundation
- Pile Foundation.
- Caisson Foundation.