Various Types of Foundation

Artificially built part of a structure which transmits the load of the structure to the ground is called foundation.

Purpose of Foundation

  • To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area so as to bring intensity of loading within the safe bearing capacity of the soil lying underneath.
  • To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate so as to prevent unequal settlement.
  • To prevent the lateral movement of the supporting material.
  • To secure a level and firm bed for building operations.
  • To increase the stability of the structure as a whole.

Types of Foundation

  • Shallow Foundation.
  • Deep Foundation.

Shallow Foundation

A Shallow foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is situated instantly below the lowest part of a structure. The depth of foundation is equal or less than its width.

Classification of shallow foundation

  • Spread Footings.
  • Combined Footings.
  • Mat or Raft Foundation.

Deep Foundation:

A deep foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is placed at a deeper depth below the ground level. The depth of foundation is much greater than its width.

Classification of deep foundation

  • Pile Foundation.
  • Cofferdams.
  • Caisson Foundation.

 

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