Types of Welding Processes

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW):

Shielded metal arc welding is an important welding procedure in both shop and field. An electric arc is produced between the end of a coated metal electrode and the steel components to be welded.

During the welding process the electrode coating serves two purposes:

It forms a gas shield to prevent absorption of impurities from the atmosphere.

The flux in the coating purifies the molten metal.

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW):

Submerged arc welding is an important process. This method is used in only the flat or horizontal position. The process is similar in principal to shielded metal arc welding. However, a continuous bare wire electrode is used instead of a coated “stick” electrode and the flux is supplied in granular form (Loose flux).

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW):

The gas metal arc welding process is important in structural shop applications because of its adaptability to all-position work. This process, which may be automatic or semi-automatic, utilizes an uncoated solid wire electrode with arc and weld metal shielding provided by a stream of gas.

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW):

This process also may be automatic or semi-automatic. The electrodes are tubular and contain a flux-filled core, which provides shielding for the arc and weld metal. It has the same applications as the gas metal arc process.


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