Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW):
Shielded metal arc welding is an important welding procedure in both shop and field. An electric arc is produced between the end of a coated metal electrode and the steel components to be welded.
During the welding process the electrode coating serves two purposes:
It forms a gas shield to prevent absorption of impurities from the atmosphere.
The flux in the coating purifies the molten metal.
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW):
Submerged arc welding is an important process. This method is used in only the flat or horizontal position. The process is similar in principal to shielded metal arc welding. However, a continuous bare wire electrode is used instead of a coated “stick” electrode and the flux is supplied in granular form (Loose flux).
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW):
The gas metal arc welding process is important in structural shop applications because of its adaptability to all-position work. This process, which may be automatic or semi-automatic, utilizes an uncoated solid wire electrode with arc and weld metal shielding provided by a stream of gas.
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW):
This process also may be automatic or semi-automatic. The electrodes are tubular and contain a flux-filled core, which provides shielding for the arc and weld metal. It has the same applications as the gas metal arc process.