Types of Mortar Used in Building Construction

Cement mortar:

Cement and sand are used in this type of mortar as binding material and fine aggregate respectively. The proportion of cement and sand may varies from 1:2 to 1:6.

Lime mortar:

Lime is used as binding material in this type of mortar. There are two types of lime are normally used in this type. Fat lime and hydraulic lime. Generally, the proportion of fat lime and sand is 1:2 or 1:3. Commonly used proportion of hydraulic lime & sand is 1:2.

Gypsum mortar:

This type of mortar is made from gypsum and mostly used in ancient structure.

Gauged mortar:

There are two binding materials, lime and cement, are used to produce this type of mortar. Lime has high plasticity and cement has high strength, mixing both produce mortar which is strong, durable and economic.

Surki mortar:

In this type of mortar surki is used as fine aggregate. Sometimes a proportion of sand is also mixed with surki. And most commonly lime is used as binding material.

Aerated cement mortar:

If the air-entraining admixture is mixed with cement mortar than it is called Aerated cement mortar. The admixture is mainly mixed to make the mortar mire plastic and workable.

Mud mortar:

In this type of mortar, mud is used as binding material and saw dust, rice husk or cow-dung is used as fine aggregate. Mud mortar is useful where lime or cement is not available.

Heavy Mortar:

If the mortar having bulk density of 15 KN/m3 or more then it is called as heavy mortar. Generally heavy quartzes are used as fine aggregate in this type of mortars.

Fire Resistant Mortar:

Fire resistant mortar is prepared by mixing aluminous cement to the fine powder of fire bricks. If there are any fire warnings to the structures in a particular zone, then fire resistant mortar will be used which acts as fireproof shield.

Packing Mortar:

The constituents of packing mortars are generally cement-sand, cement-loam or sometimes cement-sand-loam. This type of mortar is used to pack the oil wells. Packing mortar should be of high homogeneity, water resistance and high strength.

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