Types of Formwork for Concrete Construction

Considering shapes, formwork types can be classified as:

  • Column Formwork
  • Beam formwork
  • Slab Formwork
  • Wall Formwork
Column Formwork
  • Column formwork is made usually with either timber or metal panels.
  • The principle is to create an enclosed box with frames at the exact size of the column and fix it tightly on the kicker left from base or at the last stage of column concreting.
  • The box is held in position by steel column clamps or bolted yokes and supported by timber studs or props.
Beam Formwork
  • Beam formwork consists of open through section and because it is not closed at the top requires more supporting framework to restrain the sides.
  • The supports need to be maintained to the soffit and also provide lateral support to the sides.
  • In timber this is done by the use of a headtree across the top of a vertical member.
  • Metal panels are used with corner pieces, but timber headtrees are needed for vertical support.
Slab Formwork
  • Floors require a large area of formwork to be provided usually front beam to beam.
  • Timber floor formwork consists of timber boards or plywood sheets supported on a framework and resting on a series of timber joists.
  • Again timber and metal props can be used for vertical supports.
  • Metal panels can be used and bolted or clipped together and held in place by a system of metal beams or a tabular scaffold system.
  • Adjustable props need for levelling purposes.
Wall Formwork
  • Wall formwork is a simpler than for other concrete units as the actual forces against it are less, most of the load being carried vertically downwards.
  • The panels at both sides are held in position by ties.
  • Ties are also used as spacer, arranging wall thickness.
  • WaII support systems are usually sloping props at satisfactory intervals.

 

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