Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tallest building in world from 1998 to 2004.

Location: KLLC, Jalan Ampang of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Type: Commercial, Tourist attraction

Construction was started on 1st march 1993 & completed on 1st march 1996

Cost: US$ 1.6 billion

Owner: KLLC holdings

Number of storey: 88 (+ 4 basement floors)

Total height: 451.9m (architectural) 378.6m (roof)

Lifts/Elevators: 78

Floor Area: 395000m Sq

Material: Concrete, Steel

Architect: Cesar Pelli

Structural Engineer: Thornton Thormaseti

Project:
  • Each tower: 88 storeys
  • Tower 1: Petronas head quarters
  • Tower 2: Local and international private, Tenants, Klcc holdings
  • Smaller circular bustle or annex added to each tower rising 44 storey
  • Towers connected by Sky Bridge at 41st & 42nd storey
  • Sky Bridge: centre-line span: 58.44 metres; width, 5.29 metres, Height, 9.45 metres
  • Finished ceiling height: 2.65 metres
  • Height of pinnacles: 73.5 – 75 metres
  • Floor area varies as tower ascends
  • Facilities: 3 level concert hall, 6 storey retail and Entertainment Park, Petroleum research centre, 4 storey basement parking etc.
Columns:
  • Columns cast in reusable steel forms
  • Finely finished columns open to view at most of the floors
  • 16 tower column- vary along hight in dia. 2.4m to 1.4m dia
  • Concrete varied from M80 to M30 in 3 steps, 12 bustle columns – 1.4m to 1m
  • Setbacks at 60, 73 and 82, Sloping columns over 3 story heights
  • Above floor 84 – high slope – steel column used to avoid complication
Beams:
  • Tapered ring beams all around
  • Depth 1.15m at column to 725mm at flat zone
  • Span variation due to column changes and set backs
  • Beam grade matches column grade to simplify pumping
Sky Bridge:
  • Double Deck Bridge spanning 58.4m
  • Connects two tower at sky lobby elevator transfer station on floor 41 and 42
  • Easy circulation b/w upper tower floors
  • Minimize lift usage
  • Reduces fire exit requirement
  • Two hinged arch supports the span Self centering action from restrain at arch crown and spherical pin at supports
Pinnacle:
  • Each tower crowned by – 73m tapering top
  • Accommodates – building maintenance machine, aviation lighting and lighting protection
  • Due to steep sloping column
  • Concrete construction impractical
  • Steel used throughout
  • Lower pinnacle- 8 structural steel frames
  • Upper pinnacle – single mast of tapering circular cross section
Conclusion:
  • Mixed construction for cost and usability benefit
  • Use of HPC – reasonable sections, low cost, more space
  • Concrete construction- simple equipment’s less skill, easy connection
  • Concrete – benefits wind behavior –inherent stiffness and damping
  • Steel – fast and flexible erection- permits last minute change
  • Wind excitation –beneficial for–size 55mm to 3m

 

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