The foundation which is placed near the surface of the earth or transfers the loads at a shallow depth is called the shallow foundation.
The depth of a shallow foundation is generally about 3 meters or the depth of the foundation is less than the footing.
A shallow foundation is cheaper.
Shallow foundations are easier to construct.
Shallow foundations transfer loads mostly by end bearing.
Construction materials are available, less labor is needed, construction procedure is simple at an affordable cost, etc.
Possibility of a settlement, usually applicable for lightweight structure, weak against lateral loads, etc.
Isolated foundation, strip foundation, mat foundation, combined foundation, etc.
The foundation which is placed at a greater depth or transfers the loads to deep strata is called the deep foundation.
Greater than the shallow foundation.
Deep foundations are generally more expensive than shallow foundations.
The construction process of a deep foundation is more complex.
Deep foundations rely both on end bearing and skin friction, with few exceptions like end-bearing pile.
Foundation can be provided at a greater depth, Provides lateral support and resists uplift, is effective when foundation at shallow depth is not possible, can carry a huge load, etc.
More expensive needs skilled labor, complex construction procedures, can be time-consuming and some types of deep foundations are not very flexible, etc.
Pier foundation, pile foundation, caissons, etc.