Columns consist of two major material one is concrete and second one is steel. Columns are used to transfer the load vertically to the horizontal beam. They transfer loads of the structure to the surrounding soil through the foundations. So we need to build strong columns, otherwise, failure will occur.
Types of Column Failure
- Compression Failure
- Buckling Failure
When the axially loaded stress exceeds allowable stress, compression failure occurs. Shorter and wider column normally fails under compression failure.
Long columns are very slender, i.e. its effective length to least lateral dimension is more than 12. Under such condition, the load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns reduces drastically for given cross-sectional area and percentage of reinforcement steel. When such type of concrete columns are subjected to even small loads, they tend to become unstable and buckle to any side.